Venus Retrograde, Ancient and Modern

by Marguerite Hafeman

As the planet Venus orbits the Sun, she engages in a most enchanting dance with Earth and Sun, a stately opera with four acts and a grand finale that has played out in the heavens for an eternity; some of our most ancient sacred themes likely evolved from astronomic observation of this movement thousands of years ago. The Venusian engagement with the Sun as seen from earth correlates powerfully to the eternal cycle of birth, life and transformation that all things manifest must endure.

In her movement relative to the earth itself as both orbit the Sun, Venus tracks a geometrically perfect, rhythmic pattern over time which certainly could be taken as evidence of divine intelligence at work. Many of the oldest myths collected from many cultures around the earth tell a tale containing similar elements of plot and plan; there has been some basis of agreement amongst many supposedly disconnected cultures as to the symbolic meanings behind the travels of Venus.

The acts of this celestial opera involve the slow, metronomic motion of Venus relative to the Sun as seen from Earth. For several months the planet appears to trail in back of the Sun as Evening Star, pauses and then moves back to meet up with the Sun and undergo a transformation, then continues moving back to rise before the Sun as Morning Star; after a pause at her furthest elongation from the Sun Venus then moves forward to "catch up" with the Sun, finally meeting in union with the Sun to be transformed once again. This movement is an illusion of sorts, as when Venus is visible in the evening sky as the Sun sets as seen from earth and moving east to west, she is actually moving in front of the Sun on the ecliptic; when she rises before the Sun as seen from earth and moving east to west, she is actually behind the Sun on the ecliptic as viewed from space. Her retrograde motion is also an illusion, caused by differences in speed and location of the Venus orbit relative to that of the Earth. Venus is never more than 48° zodiacal longitude from the Sun, and is always within two zodiacal signs of the Sun.

Venus orbits slightly faster than the earth as the planet is located closer to the Sun, so she circles the Sun 2.6 times while the earth orbits 1.6 times, until the two planets meet in alignment. This activity, referred to as the Earth-Venus Metonic cycle, is a period of 583.92 earth days lasting from one Earth-Venus alignment to the next. At every 5 synodic cycles, the position of Earth relative to Venus repeats almost exactly but at a slightly different location in space; five 583.92-day cycles of Venus equals eight 365-day yearly cycles on Earth. Each alignment occurs about 216° further than the one before.(1)

Shortly after Venus, Earth and Sun come into alignment, Venus will station retrograde, wherein she appears to first stand still in the heavens and then move in apparent backwards motion relative to the earth. The retrograde period occurs about every 18 months and lasts about six weeks, plus 3-4 days spent in stationary position before and after the retrograde period. A sequence of retrograde cycles viewed over an 8-year period shows each of the five stations to be almost exactly 72 ° apart or quintile in relationship. Five stations over eight years traces a perfect pentagram with the Sun at the center(See diagram.(2)

As viewed from space each point of the pentagram is made when Venus meets in alignment with the earth by zodiacal longitude. The sixth alignment will start a new synodic series; it will be about 2° further west than the last series because each series takes slightly less than eight years to complete. At her stations, Venus is also doing a slow regression through the signs of the zodiac; when stationing to turn retrograde in the same sign every eight years, the planet will be located at 2-3 ° earlier in the sign than the previous retrogression. The synodic and retrograde pentagram pattern will precess over the entire 360° of the zodiac about every 243 years.(3)

Venus Retrograde Cycles and the Golden Section
A true Venus transit, wherein Venus is seen drifting across the central disc of the Sun can occur as a single event or very occasionally as a pair of transits occurring about 8 years apart. Pairs of transits happen only about every 121.5 years due to the tilted orbit of Venus relative to the ecliptic; Venus can be located too far above or below the ecliptic for the Earth-to Venus-alignment to be exactly in line with the Sun. The last pair occurred on June 8, 2004 and June 6, 2012. Venus retrogrades came and went every 18 months between the times of the pair transits; the difference was visibility relative to the Sun. These pairs are thought to carry a deeper impact on collective movements in human society; the last pair both occurred in Gemini in a similar degree area and is thought to correlate with a global rising of consciousness relative to the sacred feminine. There is no other earth-planet synod which resonates with the same precisely patterned frequency as that of Earth-Venus, it is unique in its ability to periodically interface with our own patterns of evolving consciousness. The stations and transits of Venus relative to the Sun, along with some of their mythological meanings was delineated by Erin Sullivan in her book Planets in Retrograde as follows:(4)(5)

Greatest Eastern Elongation: Venus rises as Hesperus the Evening Star, appearing at dusk to the west after the Sun has set. The planet will occupy this position for about two months before she will turn retrograde at about 45 to 48° ahead of the Sun in zodiacal longitude. As evening star, Venus assumes the mantle of learning, wisdom and spiritual maturity. In both Greek and Mesoamerican mythology, this is also a time when she takes the form of a man or androgyne and walks the Earth.

Station Retrograde: In the four days before the actual station, Venus will seem to stand still in the heavens and then appear to move backwards as seen against the zodiac. Venus is actually 30 ° ahead of the Sun at this point; the Sun advances and Venus appears to move backwards to meet it. In Mesoamerican tradition, Venus in his male form will meet with the goddess of love and couple with her; in a Greek version she meets and mates with the planet Mercury, which is always close by the Sun. The product of this union is a sky monster (or shadow behaviors we cannot bear to bring to the light) which is subsequently sacrificed by the Sun.

Inferior Conjunction: Venus will pass in retrograde motion in front of the Sun's disc as seen from earth; then begin to fall behind the Sun in longitudinal degrees. This is the midpoint of the retrograde cycle; it marks a new phase of internal process and external action relative to activity on earth. Six to seven days later Venus will reach what is called her helical rising, visible just behind the Sun but again, as seen from earth appearing to rise before the Sun. By the Aztec and Mayan tradition, she is transformed into a god or goddess, however covered with blood and bones from her recent sojourn in the underworld or on earth; at this time she will have ascended to her cosmic throne. This was the time when ancient Mesoamerican armies were sent into action to settle scores, collect victims for blood sacrifice and conduct fertility rites. Author's Note: The Venus Passage of June 5-6, 2012 at 15° Gemini 44'was noteworthy as one of a pair of retrograde transits, the other occurring on March 27, 2009 at 7° Aries 15' wherein Venus was fully visible against the backdrop of the Sun's disc.

Station-Direct: This station occurs when Venus is exactly 30 ° behind the Sun in longitude, wherein she appears to resume direct motion in the heavens. Author's Note: On March 6, 2009 the station was especially spectacular, as it occurred at 29 ° Pisces and effectively on the Aries Point of the zodiac. Venus lingered at a prime zodiacal junction point, between the ultimate dissolution of life (Pisces) and resurrective rebirth into life (Aries).

Zero degrees Aries itself is an extremely powerful trigger point, as it coincides with the point where the Sun crosses the ecliptic at vernal equinox, traveling northwards. Especially as pertains to the mundane astrological study of politics, current events and countries, big changes can be triggered in global events that can send waves of transformation down to the personal level.

Greatest Western Elongation: This is the point at which Venus becomes Phosphoros the Morning Star; it occurs about a month after the planet has reached the degree at which it was in inferior conjunction with the Sun. Venus will always be 41 to 48 ° behind the Sun in zodiacal longitude at this time. Even though Venus is technically traveling behind the Sun in zodiacal longitude, she appears to rise ahead of the Sun in the morning as seen from earth. Venus in this position resonates with cosmic creativity, boldness and forthright confidence; depending on the sign involved, the spirit is more exploratory, less fettered by the limitations of earthly concerns.

Superior Conjunction: This aspect occurs when Venus is on the other side of the Sun as seen from Earth and will travel through the same degrees of the Sun in zodiacal longitude. The planet is not visible to us for about 50 days around the conjunction; correspondingly, Venus has undergone a rebirth in spirit and retreat into the womb in preparation for walking the earth in her guise as a mortal androgyn. At this time Venus begins to advance towards her greatest eastern elongation and the cycle begins anew.

The Venus pentagram pattern is comprised of Golden Sections, the magical ratio of proportions that is embedded in all of nature from the spiral of a galaxy to the whorl in the center of a sunflower. It reproduces itself in its last digit when raised to its own power. Five is the classic number of the human being, the five senses, also the four elements dominated by Spirit, denoting creativity and spiritual inspiration in motion. It is also a harmonious combination of feminine and masculine attributes, the balanced expression of the angel-beast, or spirit embodied in matter. According Erin Sullivan, "This function simultaneously enfolds creative and destructive potentials. The dualism [symbolized by the movement} of Venus speaks of these polarities: the sacred and the profane; the divine and the temporal; the life-force and the death-wish;... the celestial and the worldly." (6)

In astrology and occult practice, Venus represents the force of magnetic attraction; whereas Martian drive goes after and acquires the desired object, Venusian energy prefers to attract the object of its desire to come closer, drawing the beloved in with charisma and sensual engagement, some subtle nuances of seduction. She also rules affection, love, beauty, harmony, luxury and the financial maneuvers involved in procuring such delights. Venus is an arbiter of taste and style and depending on her mood can be a diplomat par excellence or a valiant spirit that actively defends her principles and goals. She also supports the development and function of authentic values, as differentiated from conditioned values generated by an organized social institution or culture.

On a more difficult level she can foster vanity, laziness, self-indulgence and extravagance; when afflicted she may generate discord in marriage, and other relationships. Venus does not necessarily nurture in a motherly way; she can be more interested in self-satisfaction and autonomy than in necessarily caring about what others think or need in the motherly sense. If afflicted in her more chthonic form of Kali-esque proportions, she can be a harbinger of violence, war, collapse and sacrifice.

Venus as a deeper catalytic principle reflects the cycle of birth, life and degeneration. Her movements relative to the Sun are reflective of a most ancient global myth that tells of the sacrificed and resurrected Great God(dess), she who was one and the same the triune expression of the One Cosmic Consciousness long before a male principle came to dominate the cultural attention. In her feminine guises as the dark mother, militant queen and resurrected divine child, with the sweep of a hand she can generate new growth and bestow abundance along with all the joys of sensate love, while with a sweep of the other she can bring a sudden end to that which has outlived its usefulness. She can offend those who desacralize earth, nature and the feminine principle, disappoint those who hope to find the path to immortality while in the flesh; yet she can also feed the hunger to acquire or consume ever more, careless with her favors when seeking self-gratification and sensual indulgence.

Over time man created religions that polarized and dualized the phenomenon of being and divinity, ironically in the name of the One True God, which has led on occasion to a complete denial and/or demonization of fully one side of everything including God and/or an alleged absence of God. But still, the eternal generative promise of Venus vibrates at every level of our being, from the deepest unconscious and warrens of inner self, out through the forms of doing and being that characterize life on earth, whether we would choose to believe in such non-empirically measured phenomena or not. The Venusian spirit cannot be medicated, rationalized or suppressed away forever; in these times the divine feminine is said to be rising up again in response to the extreme imbalances in body, mind and spirit that plague us at the end of the Piscean Age.

Some Astrological Comments About Venus and the Sun in the Natal Horoscope

Natives born with Venus within five or so degrees of the Sun at birth or Venus and Sun both located in Taurus or Libra in the same house are special in a Venusian way. A conjunction in general infers a mingling and blending of energies which can be either sublime or disharmonious, depending on the planets and resident zodiac signs involved. Classically, any planet within 17° of the Sun is considered to be "under the influence of its rays," therefore subject to being "blinded" by solar exuberance and focus of intension. Venus rules values and receptivity, while the Sun rules central powerhouse of true identity, so it can be tempting for someone born with this combination to stubbornly assume that one's own perspective on life is always accurate. In other words, one can be "blinded by the Sun" so they don't necessarily see their own psychological distortions, nor may they see the reality of other beings in a particularly favorable or compassionate light. But the point of cazimi, wherein the planet is exactly aligned with the Sun by longitude was thought by medieval astrologers such as Lilly to be a placement denoting extreme brilliance, a node of genius potential as it were.

In the case of Venus one should also consider if her union with the Sun is coming or going, as surely a transit by retrograde motion (inferior) is so very different in flavor than one occurring in direct motion (superior). In accordance with the mythical meanings attached to this phase, Venus moving in retrograde conjunction with the Sun could be quite ambivalent, caught between earthly moorings and heavenly vision, perhaps not so tied to conventional principles. The planet is about to "change sex", be transformed into her divinely militant, feminine mode so perhaps individuals born with this placement or even experiencing it by transit can sometimes feel as though they live at a crossroads between the worlds, cyclically exposed to great ravishments of transformation and rejuvenation as they travel their path in life.

At the superior conjunction the Sun is aligned between Earth and Venus; she is also hidden from visible view for several days, gestating for a mortal birth amidst the rays of the solar disc. Dare it be said that Venus in superior conjunction to a natal Sun could be somewhat introvert in nature, or perhaps as she is a goddess who is transformed into mortal form, behave in a manner that tends to believe itself to be of superior judgement compared to the mere mortals with which it must abide, perhaps an upholder of great universal truths or valiant ideals who has come to earth to teach and demonstrate wisdom to the rabble.

With both phases of conjunction, it is as though business as usual is suspended; in some ways the Sun-Venus individual is not of this world. If expressed as an affliction, overindulgence in food, pleasure or luxury is another possibility, along with fickleness in affections. Even though Sun and Venus together can be sociable, generous, warm-hearted, fruitful and creative, popularity and success in love may ebb and flow with the native's compulsions.

One might think that a Venus-Sun conjunction in a natal chart would represent a very feminine individual who men would find hard to resist; or in a man's chart the combination should represent someone who adores women. Au contraire, these individuals can suffer from an overdeveloped sense of perfection-which the native may believe is objective in scope although staggeringly biased in actuality-which can keep them at arm's length from the experience of intimacy. Correspondingly, some may project judgments of rejected parts of self onto others; if not attacking perceived faults in others the native can direct ire towards public tragedies or foreign cultures instead.

Others may develop an intense obsession with keeping the body under control at all times with rigorous dieting and exercise; the natural functions and appearance of the body are not particularly pleasing to them. Some Venus-Sun individuals seem to have a preoccupation with exaggerated masculine or feminine appearance, almost in a caricature of role-playing attire, posturing and graces, whereas other Venus-Sun folks like to broadcast their opinions and ideals, perhaps while simultaneously engaged in sensate gratification of various kinds. Others don't seem to mind demanding their version of perfection out of those who would grace their arm. Personal experience with Venus-Sun has frequently included interface with one who at first blush is ever so nice, dainty, maybe refined; but there is always a tiger lurking underneath. Add the proximity of more planets to a Venus-Sun confab-say Mars and/or Mercury for example- and we have the makings for a real block party.

Venus retrograde in the natal chart, whether closer or further from the Sun vibrates to a distinctly different rhythm in comparison to those born with Venus direct. whether speaking of men or women, the native would seem to be on the reticent side, either slower to develop their sexual proclivities or more conservative and circumspect before committing to the pursuit of sensual indulgences, especially if Venus is in the sign of her detriment (Aries and Scorpio) or fall (Virgo). There is also something different about the style of engagement in sexual matters; in either sex this placement can indicate for example someone who marries well and becomes a pillar of the community, only to indulge in clandestine affairs with others of either sex when the urge comes calling. Venus retro can play out as a penchant for hit-and-run romance or the urge to embellish bedroom activities with some kind of unique erotic twist. Another possibility is cyclic engagement in sexual activity interspersed with periods of celibacy, perhaps in order to devote more time to other pursuits. It cannot be said that natal Venus retrograde is any kind of an indicator for homosexuality, but it does indicate one who has a delayed, different or more complex relationship with their own sexuality and creative drive; or perhaps harbors conservative, unique or derogatory definitions of value relative to money, the accumulation of assets and self-worth.

Venus Retrograde by Transit The station of itself often correlates with reversals in stock market activity; Venus is traditionally considered as an indicator for financial affairs along with Jupiter. The two and a half month Venus retrograde period does not seem to be an especially fortunate time to seek out a new romantic interest or get married either. Partnerships we might already have may drift apart, one or the other becoming preoccupied with other matters for awhile. It is easy to feel cool and distant, inclined to turn within; the retrograde period serves well to take an inventory and forgive self for past indiscretions, bring old, unfinished business connected to low self-esteem forward for healing, disappear on retreat or indulge in reveries of love won and lost in the past. At the other extreme, some may become impulsive, inclined to take risks or indulge in over-the-top reactive behavior; certain peculiar urges sensual or exploratory that may have been kept at bay may suddenly surface and demand to be indulged.

Overall, there is a change in mood and direction relative to the affairs of Venus; the conscious mind goes off line in some way, allowing contents from the more exotic realms to surface into our awareness, initiating major changes in attitude and perspective which can then surface as an external change in behavior or direction up to several months after the retrograde is over. This is just the way Venus likes to do radical work on the psyche, stealthily and delayed in outward manifestation, first quietly dissolving away old barriers much like its higher octave Neptune. In the last several hundred years we in the west have been encouraged to repress the more sensual, natural and uniquely creative aspects self to the detriment of emotional health, self-valuation and basic self-acceptance of the body; in the case of Venusian influences, this tactic appears to not working so well any more as evidenced by the general modern preoccupation with health, fashion, sociability and sexual satisfaction, but the concept of sacred sexuality still seems to be obscured by profane distortions that can enchain the libido with fears of intimacy, porn fantasies or sadomasochistic-masochistic nuances. And there are still many conservative societies which radically restrict the rights and freedoms of women, even unto mutilating their sexual organs to deny the pleasures of sex.

The time of retrograde could be put to good use meditating on a certain key piece of conditioned human behavior that in the west arose out of classical Greek, Essene and Levite schools of philosophy. This being that nature and by extension the body and its feelings are irrevocably split from mind, soul and spirit, creating a deep wound that (it is claimed) can never, ever be healed. Allegedly, this split had to occur as the price for man moving closer to divinity, therefore nurturing the process of civilization.

The unspoken implication is that if certain natural feelings, instincts, images and needs are allowed to intermingle with the logical-linear affairs of the productive Protestant work ethic that preoccupies most of us, the result would be mayhem; we are naturally sinful creatures, therefore much energy must be put forth to restrain the beast and keep its nose to the grindstone. Or one's peers might see who one really is, this leading to scapegoating, abandonment, horrible torture in the good old days and loss of employment today, at least within mainstream society.

The traditional Christian canon is traditionally not tolerant of "worshipping" images either and even says so in the second commandment given to Moses. However visualization is the primary right-brain creative function and it is coupled with feelings and the faculties of instinct and intuition, all of which are survival skills that must come first in order of normal, healthy inductive or deductive reasoning operations of the brain. But in the past 2,000 years western culture became obsessed with left-brain, logical-linear Apollonian "reason"; we were conditioned to worship the written or verbalized word, to shun and distrust information presented symbolically in sensate form. Inevitably, this imagery was associated with the Great Goddess or one of her representatives, for example Mary Magdalene or the Melusine.(7)

It has been suggested that the left brain is wired up primarily to the hunter-gatherer instinct, therefore the ability to kill; in modern life most of us are essentially obsessed with work, competition, money, ownership and status, and many are quite concerned about supporting only the "right" clothing, lifestyle, art and music, certainly not really allotting much unstructured play time unless managing to purchase the luxury to do so. A switched-around order of processing priority which promotes left-brain function over right-brain, as forced onto the average youthful cranial synapse network might be a key factor in why so many ADHD and autistic children are being born today. Switching therapy, wherein the child is re-adjusted in left and right body-brain orientation is quite fashionable at the moment.

For those who have successfully split off emotional life from reality, the film and gaming industry can create fantasy lives and supply the emotional component for us; risk-taking behavior and deep emotions can be experienced vicariously instead of getting directly involved. Most of us in everyday life harbor ambivalent feelings about those with whom we must relate but then, what if one of them is narcissisic, abusive, controlling or pathologically self-absorbed? Usually in my experience, everyone is required to act as if nothing untoward is going on. The rhinoceros under the tablecloth in the middle of the living-room phenomanon, or the horrific scandals that surround deceased TV personality and pedophile Sir Jimmie Savile comes to mind; the most horror involves the many people and institutions that remained silent about his indiscretions, because of the monetary gain or prestige to be gained in return.

What Venus would want of us is a healthy sense of self-esteem, regardless of the success or failure that has been our lot in life. Also to be freely creative, sexually gratified and mingled in joyous union with the fullness of sensate experience that is Gaia's gift to us. Venus can offer the visionary and emotional strength to weather all the ups and downs that life present; she illuminates the ancient initiation of decent to the underworld, being stripped of all honors and trappings of ego, crucifixion on the Tree of Life and rebirth into wisdom, then ascension with dignity to rejoin the mortal world.

One way to penetrate walls of split psyche, blockage, denial or fear is to ask directly for divine help. Ask the spirit guides or angels to assist-or consider experimenting with the older ways of interfacing with the immortal archetypes that underlay the web of life, including Goddess Venus herself. She and countless other gods and goddesses from the ancient systems of worship are all symbolic emanations of the one supreme Source; healers and initiates long ago discovered that great potency for change and empowerment can be tapped through imagery, storytelling, color, sound and scent while invoking a particular archetype. These elements can serve as a sort of intermediary between that which is known and our contact with the numinous. Consider holding a tea-party with Venus and ask her to help heal the illusion of separation from Divine Love, for example, to let unconditional love permeate you inside and out.

Strange but true, imbuing a particular archetype or divine image with familiar earthly attributes in a form that can be visualized, sounded and assumed does much to empower the archetype's ability to actively interact with and modify the psyche. At the least, become aware that Jehovah or Allah delineated as a jealous, vengeful, punishing, feminine-contemptuous God is a particularly powerful archetype that has been seeded inside each one of us in the western world for many generations. Even if one no longer attends church, a life-denying version of its authority is still in there, screaming about our various imperfections from within or prodding us onward to judge self and others, conquer infidels, obey authority without question, inflict and receive punishment.

When active in angry, perfectionist and paternal form, it can bar the way to the Light of inner sacred union between body, mind and soul, personal freedom and joyful natural existed. This archetype of divine mind seems to have been born of a psychological glitch that descended on the Mediterranean cultures as they made the transition from right-brain, holistic perspective to left-brain abstractions of reason. Its stamp of legitimacy springs from the Platonic notion of God's perfect cosmos, comprised of static, eternal absolutes that have fallen into a flawed state of sin and death through contact with the human body, nature and dynamic earthly life; the price of atonement is never-ending and never enough.(8)

The Venusian Element in Nature Nature itself is generally relegated by human society to a place of secondary importance, except for whatever utility or profit can be extracted from it. Scientists still presume that most animals have little reasoning ability and some clergy still claim that animals have no soul or real feelings. Nature is still viewed in some circles as expendable, a divine mistake that marred the perfection of the Creator's design, or perhaps the irrelevant product of matter born out of complex chemical reactions. If not serving as a pleasant backdrop for development advertising, nature can present as an unruly, untidy and smelly feminine hygiene problem.

Nature and by extension the feminine principle came to be designated the root of all evil apparently simply because it is dynamic, changeable and irritatingly unpredictable. It can contain predators that must not under any circumstances be allowed to compete for space or resource with humans. It can be something beautiful to fish in and hike through, as long as we don't have to pay much for its upkeep.

If it becomes desirable for development, we may morn its ruin all the way to the bank and expect to move on to the next unsullied frontier, except that planet Earth is running out of virgin territory to usurp. For the deeply urbanized creature who may nurse a compulsive neurosis about ordering nature into tidy divisions and rows, fenced and de-loused, or one who secures their identity via killing critters for body parts, amusement or to eliminate poachers on man's privileges, nature and its components could do with being simplified as there are so many species in it that appear to have no practical use whatsoever for human consumption; they just take up space-that could be developed.

Is your own contact with nature conducted mainly from afar, sampled in a calendar picture, installed and maintained by landscapers, gingerly dabbled in for a fleeting weekend? When out in it how much time is spent worrying about bugs, dirt, sunburn or all the other things that one surely could be doing with the time? Is it fantastic in the wilderness Out There, but that wild place is separated carefully from the civilized human In Here? Consider that the space, time and manner in which you connect to nature, including any allergies, is the way you relate to your own body, creative impulse, feelings and sensual impulses. And note that without a large quantity of nature left to itself in good working order, there will be little to no quality of human life left on earth, due to the symbiosis in diversity that is necessary to maintain the web of life.

Why are many of us so very, very busy mutating, overpopulating, building over and outright poisoning the very substrate that makes our existence here possible? By extension, why would we go about blinding, starving, abusing, fighting, ignoring, degrading or selling out our own selves or others -while believing this activity is a necessary adjunct of civilization. But then Venus herself as Queen of Heaven can also be a warrior, judge or executioner in the restoration of natural balances; in one of her many disguises she carries the cauldron of transformation and rejuvenation. If all else fails she can bring down the mighty from within or without, cleanse the distortions through means either subtle and psychological or apocalyptic and physical. In the end, there is no denying her presence or her power to upset the gameboard completely, with or without our cooperation.

(1) "The Venus Transits, The Pentagonal Cycle of Venus", Nick Anthony Fiorenza,

(2)Retrograde Planets, Traversing the Inner Landscape, by Erin Sullivan, Arkana Penguin Books, Harnmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1992. Diagram of Venus Retrograde Cycles and the Golden Section; reproduction from Figure 5.3, p.89.
Note: Book republished by Weiser Books, 2000.

(3) "The Venus Transits, The Pentagonal Cycle of Venus," by Nick Anthony Fiorenza,

(4) Ibid, "The Cycle of Venus Retrograde", p.85-86.

(5) Ibid. Diagram of the Venus Cycle; reproduction from Figure 5.2, p.85.

(6) Ibid. "The Cycle of Venus Retrograde", p. 92.

(7)The Alphabet Versus the Goddess, The Conflict Between Word and Image, by Leonard Schlain, Penguin/Compass, 1999.

(8) The Great Cosmic Mother, Rediscovering the Religeon of the Earth, by Monica Sjoo and Barbara Mor, "The Olympian Male," pp 235-243, Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1987.

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